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Potato growth habit

Part of the article:unknown Popularity: Publication time:2018-08-30 08:27
Growth cycle
1. dormancy period
After harvesting, potato can not germinate for a long time in a suitable germinating environment. It belongs to physiological natural dormancy and is an adaptability to adverse environment. Tuber dormancy begins at the tip of stolon and stops polar growth and tubers begin to expand. The length of dormancy is related to the storage of tubers, whether the seedlings can emerge in time after sowing, and therefore the yield. The length of potato dormancy period is greatly affected by storage temperature. Under the condition of 26 degrees Celsius, the dormancy period varies from about one month to more than three months due to different varieties. At temperatures of 0-4 degrees Celsius, potatoes can remain dormant for a long time. The dormancy process of potato is determined by the direction of enzyme activity and closely related to environmental conditions.
2. germinating period
The growth of potato begins with the bud germination on the tuber. Only when the tuber is released from dormancy can the bud and seedling grow obviously. From germination to emergence, germination is the first stage of main stem growth. The center of growth during germination is the elongation, rooting and stolonization of the buds. Nutrition and water are mainly supplied by seed potatoes in the order of stems, leaves and roots. The speed and quality of growth depend on the environmental conditions required for seed tuber and germination. Growth time varies from one month to several months, depending on the dormancy characteristics, cultivation season and technical measures.
3. seedling stage
From seedling emergence to the sixth or eighth leaf flattening, that is, the completion of a leaf order of growth, known as the "round tree", is the second growth of the main stem for potato seedling stage. The duration of seedling stage is relatively short, whether spring or autumn is only half a month.
4. beginning period
From the rosette to the twelfth or sixteenth leaves, the early-maturing varieties blossom in the first inflorescence; the late-maturing varieties blossom in the second inflorescence, which is the growth of the third segment of the main stem for about a month. The main stem began to rise sharply during the growth period, accounting for about 50% of the total height; the main stem and leaves were all built, and the branches and leaves were expanded. Roots continued to expand, tubers expanded to the size of pigeon eggs, and there was a turning point in the growth center during the growth period. The end of the turning point was to balance the ratio of stem and leaf dry matter to tuber dry matter.
5. period of sweet potato
The tuber formation period. After the completion of the growing season, the tuberous stem stage is the main stage of tuber growth. During this period, the growth of stem and leaf decreased gradually, and the basic leaves began to turn yellow and litter, and the organic nutrients in all parts of the plant were transported to the tuber continuously. The tuber enlarged rapidly, especially 10 days after flowering. The length of the tuber period is governed by climatic conditions, disease and cultivar maturity, usually 30-50 days.
growth conditions
Potatoes are cold and cool. They are low temperature crops. The formation and growth of underground potato tuber requires loose, breathable, cool and moist soil environment.
Potato temperature requirements: tuber growth temperature is 16 ~18, local temperature is higher than 25, tuber growth stopped; stem and leaf growth temperature is 15 ~25, more than 39.
Potatoes have been introduced into China for only more than 300 years. It is said that overseas Chinese were introduced from Southeast Asia. In the 21st century, China's potato planting area ranked second in the world. Potato has high yield, rich nutrition and strong adaptability to the environment. It has been widely used all over the world. Tropical and subtropical countries can cultivate potatoes even in winter or cool season and obtain high yield.
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